Getting Started on Surprise Medical Bills: An Advocate’s Guide

This report focuses on surprise bills from out-of-network providers and is intended as a guide for advocates and policymakers interested in practical steps to address this problem. It discusses the reasons for surprise out-of-network bills and the existing and proposed state laws and federal approaches that have attempted to mitigate this problem. Drawing on interviews with advocates, regulators, and stakeholders, the guide identifies five essential consumer protections that should be included in any surprise medical bill policy.